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BLACK TV PROGRAMMING: IS THE INTERNET FILLING THE VOID?
By MIRIAM STEVENS
A THESIS PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS OF NEW MEDIA JOURNALISMFULL SAIL UNIVERSITY
“At the moment, the number of scripted, live-action shows on broadcast television with an all black (or predominantly minority, for that matter) casts are exactly zero” (Consoli, 2010). There is a clear divide between an authentic black life experience and the stereotypes that often come across the television screen. Due to this discrepancy, some black audiences have begun migrating to alternative channels to fulfill their entertainment needs.
“A growing number of blacks are headed to the programming (aka Internet TV) is fast becoming popular–and even faster becoming a moneymaker. And, we’re definitely tuning in. In June, YouTube (the largest video site online) had 8.3-million African-American viewers, according to Nielsen Media Research” (Samuels 2008). This shift to online channels results from the frustration of not seeing original, high quality, scripted black television stories on television. While cable programming offers diversity, it comes with high subscription costs. Therefore, some of the black viewing audience has elected to get their television content through Internet TV.
There are seasoned actors, directors, scriptwriters, producers, and entrepreneurs who are now providing black television programs or webisodes on the Internet. These programs are becoming popular among those cutting the cable cord. “Cord-cutting — quitting cable or satellite TV in favor of online video sources — has become a popular move for people who want more control over their television watching” (Ostrow 2011).
Purpose of the Project
Black TV Programming: Is the Internet Filling the Void is a multimedia capstone project that examines the past, present, and future of television. The main purpose was to shed light about black television programs that are available to watch using an Internet television platform. The absence of high quality black television programming provided through traditional networks is explored in this project. A cross section of diverse opinions was presented by featuring some content creators, television executives, academic experts, and entertainment business executives who weighed in with their views on if Internet TV is the increasing avenue for black television programming. Also, identified was if having web television for the black viewing audience and created by a black person, fills voids that traditional network stations no longer provide. Finally, some online enthusiasts and television viewers gave feedback about whether watching Internet TV shows are now in fact their increasing choice for viewing television shows.
The thesis identified through research, surveys, and interviews the issue of black television programming that is currently missing from traditional network line-up. The thesis furthered examined alternative options to view black television programming that are found through cable networks and the Internet. The main focus narrowed the topic to black television programming and whether the Internet is filling the void. The consistent question that this research project sought to answer and was the headline for an online article asking, “Where are the black TV shows” (Consoli, 2010).
Throughout the course of the project an extensive examination as to what may be contributing factors for the lack of a predominantly black cast television show aired on traditional networks programming was done. It was also noted that reality television and cable television did help fill in some of the missing black programming gaps, but researched showed there was an audience looking elsewhere like online to watch black television programs. Also, looking at the trending of black original content creators using the web to present their work was presented. Interviews with several entertainment professionals, education specialist, video producers, media personnel, and Internet providers allowed the reader to see differing opinions to the question of whether black programming is finding a viable platform through use of Internet platforms and television.
Significance of the Project
Digital technology is changing the business of television broadcast as it relates to consumption, advertising, content creation, and delivery. This project examined Blacks in television and how their roles have evolved. The focus was on the stereotypes, representations, theme diversity, and typecasting. Current gaps in the opportunities for and portrayal of Blacks on traditional network television were also explored. Finally, this project highlighted the usage and accessibility of mobile technology, web television and Internet channels that have resulted in black program’s resurgence on a new platform.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of consistency and cohesive understanding when reviewing this piece the following definitions are provided. Webisodes according to dictionary.com is a short, original video that is initially viewed on a Web site and is promotional or informational in content. This project used traditional television (TV) and network television (TV) and normal free to all broadcast television (TV) interchangeably to mean the major networks that are not subscription cable stations such as ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX, and CW. Web television and Internet TV are meant to represent the same concept. Cable television and Cable TV are meant to represent paid subscription television programming. Black, African American, and people of color are referred to in the same category for the purpose of this project. Black Web Series (Black Internet/Web TV Series) are interchangeable for this project (Black Web Series, 2009).
Introduction to the Literature
Evidence of the lack of black television programming on traditional networks and analysis by some experts in the industry, provided the insight as to why some consumers are leaving cable to now support Internet TV shows. Also provided were independent research studies through surveys, polls, and forums that gauged what some online television viewers felt about the current state of black television programming.
The Diffusion Group forecasted that people go to see more of their television shows online allowing Internet TV watching to overtake traditional broadcast viewing by 2020 (TDG Study, 2010). Additional research suggests there is an increasingly number of blacks watching online content, using various non-traditional devices, and cutting the cord associated with high cost cable subscriptions (Smith, 2012; Samuels, 2008; Horowitz Study, 2011). Finally, interviewing experts in the entertainment and business arena garnered more data used answering the project’s question: Is the Internet is filling the void in black television programming? According to the information found in the project by industry experts, the Internet is the new arena to showcase black television program content (Stevens, 2012).
Review of the Literature
Information from a Northeastern Illinois University professor and entertainment professionals such as actress Dianne Carroll gave insight into the pervasiveness of typecasting and stereotypes found in black television shows and characterizations (MacDonald, 2009; Craven, 1981).
There is also evidence that Internet video viewing will overtake traditional broadcast television by 2020, “The TDG data showed the amount of time consumers spent watching online video increased 84% between 2008 and 2009. When extrapolated across the entire TV-viewing population, the average time spent viewing online video in 2009 was 52% more than in 2008. TDG expects that this rate of growth will actually increase during the next 5-7 years due primarily to the increased use of the television as the platform of choice for web video viewing” (TDG Study 2010). In addition to the TDG study, findings on Blackweb2.0 reveal that more blacks are flocking to the Internet, “Now, 35% of blacks watch TV online and 13% are considering canceling cable” (Smith, 2010). There was also evidence that black people are using alternative methods to watch online TV content (Rahsheen 2011).
In a Digital Media study the new types of technology that is being used to watch TV shows online was also presented, “On a weekly basis, about a third (31%) of urban consumers watch TV content on a computer/laptop, a mobile device/tablet, or streamed directly from the Internet to the TV through devices like Apple TV, a Vudu Box, an Xbox, or a Blu-Ray DVD player” (Horowitz Associates, Inc. Study 2011).
Evidence that more television content will be provided on web television in the future was also provided. “The study finds that over half (54%) of broadband Internet users watch TV content streamed or on an alternative platform weekly. Non-traditional viewing now accounts for 10.8 hours a month, or 7% of total viewing time, with 149.4 hours still dedicated to traditional TV” (Horowitz Associates, Inc. Study 2011). Adriana Waterstonm who is Horowitz Associates, Vice President of Marketing and Business Development shared, “Our study has tracked the evolution of alternative television since its inception. While at the very margins non-traditional video platforms may erode traditional television viewing, it is becoming increasingly clear that there will be a net gain for media brands, advertisers, and consumers. This will come hand in hand with a big accessing, sharing, and otherwise controlling their television viewing experience, not only on alternative platforms but on the traditional television platform as well.” (Horowitz Associates, Inc. Study 2011).
In addition to the research studies presented, social media channels such as Facebook and YouTube provided data that supports the rise of black television programming online. The Black Web Series Facebook group provides a list of over 100 black Web TV series that is regularly updated indicating more blacks are turning to the Internet to showcase their work. On YouTube a group of black web television producers shared why they choose the Internet to be the platform where their work can be seen. The panelist also reiterated that using a web television platform gives them complete programming control and a wider audience to view their black television shows (Black Web Series, 2009; MediaVest, 2012; Manison, 2012). Independent surveys, polls, and research captured data from a pool of respondents sharing their support of cable and Internet television to providing black television content (Stevens, 2012).
In summary, the information from some experts in their field, social media, interviews, videos, and other sources all point to the new era in Internet TV programming where the Internet fills the void left by no network programming and costly cable subscriptions. “Nowadays, more and more people are creating their own web television show. It seems that more people are becoming aware of the fact that web-based shows bring in more viewers from all over the world than a regular television show. You will find hundreds of different web television shows on the Internet” (4 Popular Web Television Shows, 1999). One journalist summed up in his observation on this newsworthy subject by sharing the following, “Despite hundreds of new channels and the popularity of ‘80s landmark ‘Cosby’ and subsequent shows, ethnic families are a rarity on the small screen today” (Braxton 2011).
METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS
In the past, The Cosby Show drew a historical, multicultural, and worldwide audience. The Cosby Show’s mass appeal or popularity was not hindered even though it was a predominantly black cast. Actually, The Cosby Show crossed cultural barrier and even in reruns people enjoy its wholesome and family oriented themes. Although The Cosby Show and other predominantly black cast shows became popular, the traditional television network executives are still not apt to promote a majority black cast in its television programming today. One television critic, Eric Deggans of the St. Petersburg Times shared his observations, “Black people are starved for shows which not only feature lots of black actors but that put black culture front and center in a way they enjoy.”
Therefore, the new challenge that blacks face today is the lack of predominantly black stories being provided through traditional media programming. There is a clear divide between an authentic black life experience and the stereotypes that often come across ones television screen. Furthermore, when a black person is cast in a role it is one that often is as a comedic sidekick or insignificant. Lead roles for a black person in a show promoted on traditional network station has almost become extinct. So, taking an in depth look at the current state of black television programming became the immediate topic to explore. Because that was a broad topic to tackle identifying a more narrow scope to explore occurred after looking at a few online videos, YouTube shows, and the Diary of a Single Mom webseries. The thought to look at black web television programming and see if the Internet could challenge traditional television for capturing the black audience piqued an interest. In addition, another intriguing point presented was the easy accessibility that a black content creator has to produce at a minimal cost a predominantly black television series and have a virtual worldwide audience. So, in order to get a better understanding of what some people online thought about the current lack of quality black programming, The Thankful Revolution’s Facebook and Twitter followers were used to obtain a sample respondent pool for polls, surveys, forums, and research on this topic. Some initial questions asked looked at the broad topic of blacks portrayals in various entertainment genres such as film, movies, television, news, newspapers, magazines, and plays. Since, that was a large topic to tackle, the appeal of how the Internet plays a role in providing television program content for blacks became the main focus. Conducting Google searches, Facebook searches, and Twitter searches for keywords such as Black Web TV identified a newsworthy topic to explore. Therefore, uncovering the merits of how the Internet plays a role in providing a worldwide audience and a platform for predominantly black television programs to be showcased became a newsworthy pursuit for this thesis project.
To communicate the significance of how the Internet impacts black television programming, employing several multimedia forms was in order. First, several research studies were conducted through independent surveys, polls, questions of the day, email Q and A, and forums.
Image 1 Survey questions such as the one pictured above were asked of the Thankful Revolution’s Facebook and Twitter followers to get their thoughts about who is providing better quality black TV programming. Survey developed and Photos screenshot Credit: by Miriam Stevens
Next, the interviews were captured and produced showcasing some of the experts in the field of entertainment, academia, and business development. Also, integrated throughout the report were graphs, pictures, audio slide shows, and video. Screenshots of social media conversations found on Twitter, Facebook, The Thankful Revolution, and other relevant sites were also used throughout the project when promoting audience engagement activities such as a call to action to watch certain black webseries. Finally, to bring an ongoing interactive component to the project a pop-up poll asking readers their thoughts on who provides better quality black television programming continues to keep audience commenting on the subject even beyond its initial thesis launch.
Image 2 Pop-up poll integrated and embedded in the final multimedia thesis report to keep the conversation going and continually gather research data. Photo Credit: Poll Created and Screenshot by Miriam Stevens
For example one of the trendsetters featured in the project was, Emelyn Stuart of Stuart Films who produces an award winning black web series called 12 Steps to Recovery. Her presentation like others featured in the project was done using multiple assets of audio, video, and photos to inform the viewer of her thoughts about how the Internet is filling the void when providing shows a black person wants to produce and see.
Image 3 Emelyn Stuart was one of the several interviews captured using video, audio, photo, and text to present their expert knowledge about black television programming and if the Internet is filling the void? Photo Credit: Screenshot by Miriam Stevens
The thesis topic integrated not only audio, visual, Infographs, surveys, polls, and photos to convey all of the information pertaining to black television programming and the Internet as the platform to showcase this content, but also text from experts in the academia, media, television industry enhanced the final compilation. One individual, Assistant Professor William Leonard from Hampton University’s School of Communications, wrapped up the entire piece by sharing his thoughts about how black people are now delving into the Internet market incorporating an entrepreneurial “Do it Yourself” (DIY) attitude. His over the phone interview was captured and presented as a text quote in the body the thesis.
Image 4 Example above is of the text quote used from one of those interviewed for this thesis project. Photo Credit: Screenshot by Miriam Stevens
The multimedia project once completed was distributed onto The Thankful Revolution’s channels. The main Bluehost website (http://thethankfulrevolution.com) is the home for the entire multimedia project and that URL project link was embedded onto The Thankful Revolution’s Facebook and Twitter sites. All of the videos used in the project were uploaded onto YouTube at The Thankful Revolution’s YouTube channel. All videos after uploaded onto YouTube were embedded onto the main Thankful Revolution website as the capstone thesis project post. The online public has easy access to view this multimedia project by simply going to the main website and do a keyword search for black TV programming and look for the March 24, 2012 article post. Any pictures, surveys, and graphs were captured as a screenshot and embedded on the main article post as a jpeg. The pop-up poll is hosted and created on Polldaddy.com site and embedded onto the main article post. One other active poll used in the main article is hosted and created on Pinnion website and then embedded onto the main article post. Distribution also included linking the project and incorporating to Miriam Stevens’ LinkedIn account.
Promotion of this project began long before the completed multimedia final launch that occurred in March 24, 2012. The initial concept of the thesis was positioned as a page that was integrated onto the main website entitled, “A Black TV Experience” Project. This page was established on November 28, 2011 and chronicled the process that went into answering the thesis question regarding black television programming and whether the Internet is filling the void. Prior to the March 12, 2012 soft launch of the multimedia portion of this project regular updates on this main site, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Blogger, MySpace, Google+, Stumbleupon, Flicker, Tumblr, and other related group sites that pertained to the topic all went into promoting the thesis work. The continual efforts made to promote dialogue, conversations, and comments throughout the 5 months that led up to the final launch garnered social media engagement. The social media channels that are part of the promotion strategy allowed the word of mouth and share feature to be used effectively and also encouraged new visitors to the main website. One of those new visitors to The Thankful Revolution main site was Tre’ McGriff who on March 23, 2012 left a comment on the thesis soft launch page.
Image 5 Prior to the final multimedia thesis launch, promotional efforts were done to engage online participation, comments, and interactions. Photo Credit: Screenshot of a text comment by Miriam Stevens
After completion of the multimedia final launch portion of text, video, audio, photo, and graphs, I initially announced on March 25, 2012 the completed work on my various social media channels such as Twitter, Facebook, The Thankful Revolution main site, and YouTube.
Image 6 Facebook announcement posted on March 25, 2012 announcing the final multimedia project. Photo Credit: Screenshot by Miriam Stevens
I also posted announcements on some of the project interviewee’s Facebook pages such as Ebony J. Lewis, Emelyn Stuart, Tony Clomax, Troy DeVolld, Danielle Earle, Jonathan Moore, Prophet Jerry Brunner, and Leon Moore. I sent out email notifications to those who indicated that they wanted to be informed of any project updates. I also sent email announcements to friends and family that are on my Yahoo, AOL, and Gmail address book list. I followed up with Womenaregamechangers on March 26, 2012 via Twitter and an email the editor to let her know that my thesis project was available for viewing.
Image 7 Announcement on Twitter sharing project link. The site Womenaregamechangers is a supporter of the thesis project and showcased Miriam Stevens as a guest blogger. Photo Credit: Screenshot by Miriam Stevens
Providing continual opportunities for online followers to know about black web series is part of the promotional strategy. This is accomplished through doing post thesis interviews for persons involved with producing a black web show, sending out alerts for when another webisode is available to view, and conducting 1-question online polls. To keep online audience engagement and new site visitors continuing, posting regular updates about new black television webisodes is done. Also, strategically placing URL links back to the main Thankful Revolution website when making those announcements helps tie in the entire thesis project. Some final methods used to promote this thesis project has been to email and reach out to relevant social media groups asking for an interview and also inclusion on their website. Contacting groups and individuals alerting them of the thesis and asking for an interview has been a constant post thesis launch effort. Some of those contacted are as follows: HBCU Kidz, Full Sail Student Branding Society, Full Sail Black Student Union, Blackline magazine and TV, Black Hollywood, VA Press, Promoting Purpose Magazine, news anchor woman Kafi Rouse, screenwriter Carl E. Thompson, and author Beverly “GumbofortheSoul” Johnson.
Image 8 The screenshot that is above is an example of a Facebook promotional post done on April 10, 2012 alerting The Thankful Revolution followers of another webisode in Ebony J. Lewis Internet television show, Truth Unspoken. Photo Credit: Screenshot by Miriam Stevens
Due to technical issues, the results of the Google Analytic report did not provide any useful information about traffic to the site and views of the final project at the time of the launch. These technical issues have since been resolved, however, and Google Analytics will provide valuable information about site visits and page views in the future. Unfortunately, technical glitches eliminated Google Analytics for providing website feedback during this project and did not get rectified until after April 17, 2012. Since April 17, there have been 278 visits with the average time on the site being 5 minutes and 46 seconds with a bounce rate of 63.31 percent and 651 page views. The current statistics show that 37.05 percent are new visitors and 62.95 percent are returning visitors during that same time period.
For this project, the target audience were those using Internet sites to gain information, view entertainment shows, and explore business options. Narrowing the focus to those who follow The Thankful Revolution on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube was the initial strategy used. Therefore, the respondent pool for this work contains 2,922 Facebook friends, 275 Twitter followers, and 12 YouTube subscribers.
Table 1 shares the URL links, tools used to gather research, and the number of responses and comments received for the research method used. Table 2 is the list of the URL links, multimedia interviews, and the number of their YouTube videos views (see Appendix for both Table 1 and Table 2).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Black TV Programming: Is the Internet filling the void is a multimedia Capstone Thesis project that examined the past, present, and future of television programming for black people. The topic was broached using several methods. Video, audio, text, graphs, polls, surveys, and photos were used to present the research and to portray the message for each person interviewed. Over 17 multimedia videos were developed and used for the project that was uploaded to YouTube. For the 17 videos posted onto YouTube, the combined total of views received was 248. Since April 17, the Google Analytic report shows 279 visitors with 258 from the United States. The top three states that are shown visiting the most to the site come from Virginia with 122 visits, Florida with 28 visits, and New York with 20 visits.
Deciding on a topic that I was passionate about and wanted to spend at least 5 to 6 months of my life developing was the first obstacle I had to overcome. When I initially entered the New Media Master of Art program, I wanted to showcase the local Hampton Roads Virginia heroes who through the years have made a difference in the community. I was going to begin my chronicles by interviewing my father who at 13 years of age refused to sit at the back of a Richmond Virginia city bus and was arrested. He grew up in a time where segregation exited and civil rights were still not honored. I think that was one of the main reasons he became a civil rights lawyer and fought to preserve the rights that all people should have and that being fairness, equity, and dignity. He was a consummate historian of all cultures and especially enjoyed the life of Abraham Lincoln who played a key role in the liberation for black people in this country. During the course of my project my father passed away and did not get a chance to view my completed thesis. He would have appreciated my research, development, and celebration on the evolution of black television programming. He would have found it interesting that black people have taken it upon themselves to use the Internet to create original quality black web shows. Furthermore, I believe he would have enjoyed watching some of the shows that I found through the course of my research.
There were a few challenges I encountered along the way when producing this project. My first impediment was not having my own transportation; therefore I was unable to secure any face-to-face interviews. I had to devise a plan where I could still meet the multimedia requirements without the benefit of any onsite interviews. The plan I came up with was to conduct Internet video interviews using ooVoo and Skype. That led to the second challenge where the quality of the video shot by ooVoo were not the best. After harsh criticism by one of my course directors, I had to develop a better way to redo all of the videos I had already captured by ooVoo. This created a huge amount of stress as it was days before the final multimedia project was due, and I had to reshoot interviews and present them as a different asset such as in an audio and photo slide show. I was able to capture two of my interviews using Skype and that site seemed to record with a higher quality than ooVoo. This revelation did not occur to me until I had only 2-3 days left before the final project was due. Hence, a major challenge for me was to meet the deadline on time and present the kind of extensive multimedia project I wanted using quality elements. In retrospect, I would use Skype first to record online videos since it does work with the iMovie software that I know how to use and it provides better quality videos over ooVoo.
Another challenge that I had was taking the information I had found on the subject and narrowing it down to a cohesive paper. Really using good editing skills to identify the elements that should be used and what elements did not work for the final project was a major task. Along, with working on my editing skills, having to negotiate time to interview other busy industry experts was a challenge. Since, some of my interviews were not in the same time zone as mine, I had to be up late at night or early morning to capture the video and phone call. Therefore, being flexible and creative with securing interviews that could be used and meeting the project requirements by the deadline was a major obstacle for me to overcome.
As I finish reflecting about this project, I am glad that I did choose the topic looking at black television programming and whether or not the Internet is filling the void. After talking with friends, family members, and social media followers, I found that there were others who did not know about web shows that are available to watch on an Internet television station. I was glad to have presented this information to those who reviewed the project so they would become aware that there are quality black television content available to enjoy online. It was a pleasure tackling this project and giving information that can be useful for others who may want to enjoy watching a quality black television show on the Internet.
One of the lessons I learned and would recommend anyone doing a thesis project is to start early. I recommend coming up with your topic and narrowing it down to a workable thesis sentence as early as you can in the process. Once you have identified what you want to explore, then implementing research mechanisms like polls, surveys, QOTD (question(s) of the day), and questionnaires are vital to getting new information from your target market. I also recommend that if you are looking at black television programming as it relates to the Internet that you use my research as a starting point for sources. I am finding that using social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Stumbleupon, and Storify are very helpful to get additional source material for your topic.
I would also recommend that if you are in an area that host film, television, and web show festivals to attend them and interview the participants. These festivals and events are great places to find unique stories about Internet television, web content creators, new web shows that are developing, and first hand knowledge about the industry.
I would also, recommend that you have an organized plan that is specific as to what factor about the industry you want to research and present as a final thesis. The entertainment industry is very large so coming up with an unique perspective as it relates to black people is always good place to start and identify pretty quickly before you initiate your project.
I live by a creed to write out your goals, visions, and objectives for any project you desire to accomplish and use it as a roadmap to getting to the end of that project successfully. I find that even when doing this project being flexible, diligent, consistent, and relentless were keys to me having a successful project. I also, stress to start months ahead promoting your project by always keeping your social media contacts informed of the process. I would recommend using a plug in for your website that allows you to put events, projects, and timelines on your site so that you and others can observe the process.
Because I come from a marketing background, I do enjoy constantly asking questions, conducting polls, and promoting the work that I do and uncover. This has to be incorporated in your thesis development strategy because if you do not keep your followers informed about your work then you have missed out on many opportunities to grow visitors to your site. One of your goals should be to have more visits to your site, more subscribers to your social media channels, and more awareness of the topic you are working hard to present. This type of project requires a dedicated, consistent, persevering effort and unyielding energy to continue to follow-up on potential interviews, respondents, and information that brings a well rounded, balanced, and newsworthy project. After the work, the marketing, promotion, and distribution process does not stop so I recommend making sure to map out a vision plan for how to get your work recognized on relevant sites.
When watches a traditional television network station today, it is apparent that there are no longer any shows that have the majority of their cast played by a black person. The lack of a show presenting a predominantly black cast on a major television network is starting to get some people to ask started the question of where are the black television shows today. Studies have now been documented that more people are finding the Internet to be a place to present their videos, watch television, and enjoy good entertainment. Instead of relying on the traditional networks to develop an all black cast and program, more people are going to the Internet to find those types of shows. Now the option to see an entertaining program about a black person and created by a black person is available through webisodes and Internet television. Therefore, when asking the question concerning black television programming and if the Internet is truly filling the void, the answer is yes.
4 Popular Web Television Shows and Keys to Their Success. (n.d.). Steves Digicams – Digital Camera Reviews, Camera News, and Photography Information. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Black Web Series. (2009, December 14). Facebook. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from (Cannot Access this source from this link http://on.fb.me/qobpwS
Braxton, G. (2011, November 19). After ‘Cosby,’ less sitcom diversity on TV. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/nov/19/entertainment/la-et-1119-black-family-20111119
Consoli, J. (2010, June 17). Where are the black TV shows? TODAY.com. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Craven, C. (1981, December 19). Racial Stereotyping (Part 2 of 2), Television: Inside & Out. YouTube. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npbl1zfwsEw&feature=youtu.be
Dixon, C., & Niemeyer, B. (2010, May 19). Internet Video Viewing to Trump Broadcast TV by 2020 – Press Releases. TDG Research. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Horowitz Associates. (2011, October 27). Media Brands Draw Fans Online, On Mobile. Horowitz Associates Market & Multicultural Research. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Johnson, J. (2012, March 7). Panel Discussion: African American Web Series Producers. YouTube. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQ7g1IgDgQw
MacDonald, J. F. (n.d.). One Nation Under Television: the Rise and Decline of TV. J. Fred MacDonald: Media History eBooks. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Manison, K. A. (2012, March 8). Top African-American Content Producers Talk the Future of Digital Content [Video]. Black Web 2.0. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Ostrow, J. (2011, June 9). Dropping TV service in favor of watching Web content gains popularity. The Denver Post. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://www.denverpost.com/television/ci_18235689
Porter, R. (2011, March 11). Black People More Likely to Watch TV Via Alternative Platforms. Black Web 2.0. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Samuels, A. P. (n.d.). TV with out TV: as Black shows shift online, viewers can tune into the Web to find color. Ebony. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1077/is_12_63/ai_n29470270/
Smith, S. L. (2010, December 30). 35 Percent of Blacks Watch TV Online, 13 Percent Consider Cancelling Cable. Black Web 2.0. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from
Stevens, M. (2012, January 2). The Black TV Experience. The Thankful Revolution. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQwVtNfMdqk&list=UUTimhIqL147fXDOnsoe1-jA&index=26&feature=plcp
Stevens, M. (2012, March 24). Black TV Programming answering is the Internet is filling the void? The Thankful Revolution. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http://www.thankfulrevolution.com/2012/03/24/2595/
Link Tool Used Responses/Views
Survey 1 created 11/22/2011 50
Survey 2 created 12/2/2011 16
Forum Question posted 11/23/2011 1
Polls & Survey Questions Post 11/22/2011 Poll – 3
Survey – 0
Poll post launch 3/31/2012 2 votes
Pinnion Poll post launch 3/28/2012 open thru 5/31/2012 Percentage Results
No 30 %
Ongoing Active Poll began 1/31/2012 Percentage Results
Polldaddy.com Poll launched 11/29/2011 51 Votes
Mid thesis production Audience Response YouTube video with results on 1/2/2012 27 views
Facebook Q and A 12/1/2011 page used throughout entire thesis project to cause conversations with online the followers 0 comments
Table 1. Thesis responses and views
Table 2. Thesis multimedia videos and views
Link Tool Used Responses/Views
Final Launch 11
Soft Launch 17
Prophet Jerry Brunner Final Launch 23
Prophet Jerry Brunner Soft Launch 9
Don Roberts & Leon Moore Final Launch 9
Perry Lawrence Final Launch 6
Tommy Lee Nichols Final Launch 10
Tommy Lee Nichols Soft Launch 10
Aymar Jean Christian Final Launch 17
Jonathan Moore Final Launch 15
Jonathan Moore Soft Launch 11
Emelyn Stuart Final Launch 15
Emelyn Stuart Soft Launch 29
Table 2. Thesis multimedia videos and views (continued)
Link Tool Used Responses/Views
Tony Clomax Final Launch 12
Ebony J. Lewis Final Launch 31
Al Thompson and Danielle Earle Final Launch 6
Danielle Earle Soft Launch Unknown
Al Thompson Soft Launch Unknown
FB List 100+ Black Web Series Final Launch 17